Screwdrivers and Wrenches

The simple screwdriver was preceded by a flat-bladed bit for the carpenter’s brace (1744). The handled screwdriver is shown on the woodworker’s bench after 1800 and appears in inventories of tool kits from that date. Screwdrivers did not become common tools until 1850 when automatic screw machines began the mass production of tapered, gimlet-pointed wood screws. In its early form, the screwdriver was made from flat stock; its sometimes scalloped edges contributed nothing to function. Being flat, the blade was easy to haft but weak when improperly used for prying. The present form of the screwdriver, round and flattened only at the end, was devised to strengthen the shaft and make use of readily available round-wire stock.

Early box and socket wrenches fit only a particular nut or screw with flat surfaces on the head. The open-end wrench may have rectangular slots on one or both ends. In their earliest forms, such wrenches, with straight, angled, or S-shaped handles, were made of wrought iron. Cast iron came into use around 1800. Modern wrenches are drop forgings and come in many formats.

The limitations of fixed-opening wrenches were addressed as early as the 18th century, when sliding-jaw types were developed to accommodate a range of flats. In these, the end of an L-shaped handle provided the fixed jaw, and the parallel jaw was arranged to slide along the handle until it engaged the flats. In the first models, the sliding jaw was fixed into position by a wedge that was hammered into place. By the early 19th century, patents for screw wrenches began to proliferate; in these the sliding jaw was positioned and held by means of a screw whose axis was parallel to the handle. The most common example is the monkey wrench, whose name appeared in tool catalogues in the 1840s but may have been in use before that time. A convenient variation of this type of wrench is the thin and angled Crescent wrench, a modern innovation.

The plumber’s pipe wrench is a serrated-jaw variation of the monkey wrench, whose additional feature of a pivotable movable jaw enables it to engage round objects, such as rods and pipes.

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